Cardinal Gibbons and the Stormy Conclave of 1903

      James Cardinal Gibbons of the Archdiocese of Baltimore was the second American cardinal and an enormously important figure both within the history of the Church in America and the history of America in general.  His championing of

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Cardinal Gibbons and the Knights of Labor

    This Labor Day I recall an episode in both the history of labor in the United States and in the history of the Catholic Church in America.  The last half of the nineteenth century was a time of

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